Fink’s Taxonomy Verbs

Fink’s Taxonomy Verbs


About Fink’s Taxonomy

In his book “Creating Significant Experiences,” Dee Fink defined learning in terms of change. He believes in order for learning to occur, there has to be some kind of lasting change that is important in terms of the learner’s life. Essentially, if there is no change, there is no learning.


Fink’s Taxonomy Six Aspects of

Fink’s taxonomy consists of six types of significant with a number of sub-categories.

Fink’s Taxonomy – Six Aspects of :

  1. Foundational Knowledge and remembering information and ideas
  2. Application – Developing critical, creative, or practical skills
  3. Integration – Making connecting between information, ideas, perspectives, people, or realms of life
  4. Human Dimension about oneself or others
  5. Caring – Developing new feelings, interests, or values
  6. How to Learn – Becoming a better student, inquiring about a subject, becoming self-directing learners




Creating Outcomes

When designing learning courses/sessions, you should include these six significant types of learning as important learning outcomes for a course. And when writing outcomes for a course, you should include specific verbs for the different types of learning you want to achieve.

Fink’s Taxonomy Verbs for the aspects of Learning

There are specific verbs associated with different types of learning relating to the six aspects of learning from Fink’s Taxonomy. By creating learning outcomes using these verbs, you indicate explicitly what the learner must do in order to demonstrate learning at that level.



Fink’s Taxonomy Verbs for Learning Outcomes

Learning outcomes should be formulated with verbs that are specific to clearly indicate what learners will do. Below is a list of verbs linked to specific learning behaviors Fink addresses. These verbs can be used in writing or outcomes.


Foundational Knowledge    

Associate, Compare, Contrast, Describe, Define, Explain, Give example, Identify, Illustrate, Indicate, List, Name, Paraphrase, Recite, Recognize, Remember, Repeat, Restate, Tell



Analyze, Assess, Critique, Calculate, Create, Coordinate, Demonstrate, Draw, Employ, Estimate, Give example, Illustrate, Imagine, Interpret, Judge, Locate, Make decisions, Manage, Measure, Operate, Perform, Prescribe, Record, Solve, Use



Associate, Blend, Combine, Compare, Connect, Contrast, Correlate, Differentiate, Integrate, Intermix, Join, Link, Relate, Synthesize, Unite


Human Dimensions  

Acquire, Advise, Advocate, Behave, Communicate, Collaborate, Cooperate, Empathize, Express, Feel, Help, Influence, Initiate, Inspire, Interact, Involve, Lead, Mediate, Motivate, Negotiate, Nurture, Promote, Protect, Reconcile, Resolve, Reflect, Respect, Respond, Share, Support, Unite



Commit to, Decide to, Demonstrate, Develop, Discover, Explore, Express, Identify, Interpret, Pledge, Recognize, Value, Reflect, Renew, Revitalize, Share, State, Value


Learning to Learn  

Analyze, Construct knowledge, Critique, Create a plan, Describe how to, Develop a learning plan, Identify resources, Identify your learning style, Identify needs, Inquire, Formulate Frame questions, Generalize knowledge, Predict performance, Reflect, Research, Self-assess. Self-regulate, Self-monitor, Set goals, Take responsibility, Transfer knowledge


Related Links

Finks Taxonomy Verbs

Learning Taxonomies

Six Facets of Understanding

Solo Taxonomy

Taxonomy of Significant Learning


Print Friendly, PDF & Email