Tag: Learning Styles


Types of Learning Style Models

Types of Learning Style Models

 

People learn in different ways. And a learning style is a person’s preferred way of learning.

Each of us has a natural preference for the way in which we prefer to receive, process, and impart information. Because people have preferred ways of learning, much research has went into discovering the different styles. Some models are based on personality types, while others are based on brain dominance.

Over the years several theories and types of Learning Style Models have been developed.

Types of Learning Style Models include:

4MAT Learning Style Model

Gregorc mind styles model

Kolb Learning Style Model

VAK Learning Preference

Honey Mumford Learning Style

Felder-Silverman Learning Style

Herrmann’s Brain Dominance HBDI

Left-brain and Right-brain Preferences

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI

 

Types of Learning Styles Models

Fleming’s VAK model

Fleming’s VAK (Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic) model is one of the most common and widely-used categorizations of learning styles. The VAK model provides a simple way to explain and understand learning styles. Fleming believed that there were three categories of learner’s preferences.

Visual – These learners prefer to learn by seeing. They think in pictures. They like visual aids such as overhead slides, diagrams, and handouts.

Auditory – These learners prefer to learn through listening. They like lectures, discussions, and tapes.

Kinesthetic – These learners prefer to learn through experience by moving, touching, and doing. They like active exploration of the world such as science projects, building structures or models, and active experiments.

 

 

The Kolb Learning Style Model

Kolb’s learning theory defines four distinct learning styles. These learning styles can be viewed on a continuum across two dimensions, based on how people perceive information (concrete vs. abstract) and process information (active vs. reflective).

 

Convergers – These learners prefer to learn by solving problems and doing technical tasks, and they are good at finding practical uses for ideas. They like concepts and active experimentation.

Divergers – These learners prefer to learn by observation, brainstorming and gathering information. They are imaginative and sensitive. They like practical experience and reflection.

Assimilators – These learners prefer to learn by putting information in concise logical order, and using reflective observation. They like abstract modeling and theoretical reasoning.

Accommodators – These learners prefer to take a practical, experiential approach.   They are people-oriented, hands on learners, who rely on feelings more than logical analysis. They like practical experience and active testing.

 

 

The Honey-Mumford Model

Honey Mumford learning styles are very similar to Kolb’s. They also have defined four distinct learning styles.

 

Activist – These learners prefer challenges brought by new experiences and activities. They dive right into new experience to learn from them.  They are great at problem solving and role-playing, and enjoy small group discussions.

Reflector – These learners prefer to learn by watching, thinking about what they have observed. They are cautious people and would start with investigation or observation before making any commitment. They collect and analyze data before making any kind of decision.

Theorist – These learners prefer to think things through step-by-step. They like complex and logical theories as they tend to analyze and synthesize situations, principles, and other processes. They typically prefer listening to lectures, reading, and making models.

Pragmatist – These learners prefer to take what they have learned and apply it to see if it works. They enjoy experimenting or applying theories in practice.  They like laboratories, doing field work, and observations.

 

Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model

The Felder-Silverman Model examines specific areas of personality that contribute to learning. They are active or reflective, sensing or intuitive, visual or verbal, inductive or deductive, and sequential or global. A combination of these styles makes up the individuals learning preferences.

 

Sensing – These learners prefer concrete thinking, practical, concerned with facts and procedures

Intuitive – These learners prefer conceptual thinking, innovative, concerned with theories and meanings

Visual – These learners prefer visual representations, pictures, diagrams, and flow charts

Verbal – These learners prefer written and spoken explanations

Active – These learners prefer to try things out, working with others in groups

Reflective – These learners prefer thinking things through, working alone or with familiar partner

Sequential – These learners prefer linear thinking, orderly, learns in small incremental steps

Global – These learners prefer holistic thinking, systems thinkers, learns in large leaps

 

 

The 4MAT Model

Bernice McCarthy created the 4MAT System. The 4MAT System identifies four learning styles based on brain dominance theory.

Innovative/Imaginative Learners – These learners prefer co-operative learning and brainstorming. They are interested in personal meaning and making connections.

Analytic Learners – These learners prefer lectures and analysis of data. They are interested in acquiring facts in order to deepen their understanding of concepts and processes.

Common Sense – These learners prefer concrete experiential learning activities. They are interested in how things work interested in how things work.

Dynamic Learners – These learners prefer roles-playing and games.  They are interested in self-directed discovery and rely heavily on their own intuition.

 

 

The Gregorc Model

Anthony Gregorc Model is based on brain hemisphere research. It is based on the existence of perceptions, and falls on a continuum rather than being polar extremes.

 

Concrete Sequential – These learners prefer order, logical sequence, following directions, predictability getting facts, hands-on activities, step-by-step instructions, and real life examples.

Concrete Random – These learners prefer experimenting to find answers, taking risks, using their intuition, and solving problems independently.

Abstract Sequential – These learners prefer solitude, prefer well-organized material, analyzing situations before making a decision or acting, and applying logic in solving or finding solutions to problems.

Abstract Random – These learners prefer focusing on relationships and their emotions, listening to others, bringing harmony to group situations, establishing healthy relationships with others, focusing on the issues at hand.

 

 

Hermann Brain Dominance

The Herrmann Brain Dominant Instrument is a based on the idea that one side of the brain is dominant over the other. The two halves of the brain are then divided into a front and back half, making four sections in the brain. Individuals are dominant in one of these four areas, which is evident by their personality type.

 

Quadrant A: Left cerebral hemisphere – Theorists (analytical)

Quadrant B: Left limbic system – Organizers (sequential)

Quadrant C: Right limbic system – Humanitarians (interpersonal)

Quadrant D: Right cerebral hemisphere – Innovators (imaginative)

 

Theorists – These learners prefer lecture, facts, and details, critical thinking, textbooks and readings, etc. They are factually-oriented learner, takes a logical, analytical, quantitative approach to learning tasks

Organizers – These learners prefer to learn by outlining, checklists, exercises and problem solving with steps, policies, and procedures. They learn in a sequential and organized way, and when instructional exercises are structured and detailed.

Humanitarians – These learners prefer brainstorming, metaphors, illustrations and pictures, mind mapping and synthesis, and holistic approaches. They are interpersonal, emotional and kinesthetic.

Innovators – These learners prefer cooperative learning and group discussion, role-playing, and dramatization. They take a holistic approach and are very visual.

 

 

 

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Gregorc Style Delineator

 Gregorc Style Delineator

 

Anthony Gregorc is the creator of the Mind Styles Model. The Mind Styles Model provides a depiction of how your mind works. The model helps you gain a better understanding of how you think and learn.

Gregorc focused his research on measuring how learners perceive and order new information. His model describes four cognitive styles for perceiving, processing, and ordering information. A style is the set of displayed behaviors that identifies an individual’s underlying mental strengths and abilities.

 

 

Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD)

In order to identify an individual thinking and learning style, Gregorc created the Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD). This test instrument is a tool used to identify and measure a person’s thinking and learning processes. It is designed to help individuals understand and recognize the ways which they most efficiently receive and process information.

 

About the Delineator

The Delineator is a self-scoring matrix of 40 descriptive words. This testing instrument contains ten items with 4 specific words (adjectives) in each item, hence the 40 questions.

The individual ranks the four adjectives in each item from 1-4 depending on which are most and least descriptive of him or her.

The ranked numbers are then added for each group of adjectives that represent a preference. The results are graphed to show the degree of dominance of whichever preference scored the highest.

 

 

Two Types of Preferences

Scoring the responses gives values for two continuums of preferences.

The two continuums are:

  1. Perceptual preference – how you prefer to grasp or perceive information
  2. Ordering preference – how you prefer to order information

 

Perceptual Preference

  • abstract
  • concrete

Ordering Preference

  • sequential
  • random

 

Gregorc Style Delineator

About Each Preference

Perceptual Preferences

Concrete perceptions

When you are using your concrete ability, you are registering information through your five senses. You are dealing with the obvious. You are not looking for hidden meanings, or making connections between ideas or concepts.

 

Abstract perceptions

This quality allows you to understand ideas, qualities, and concepts that cannot be seen. When you are using your abstract ability, you are using your intuition and your imagination. You are looking beyond what is seen to the hidden meanings and related concepts.

 

 

Ordering Preferences

Once you have acquired the information, you then process it mentally. You will have a preference as to how you order that information.

Sequential ordering

This preference involves the organization of information in a in a linear, step-by-step manner. When using your sequential ability, you are following a logical train of thought.

 

Random ordering

This preference involves the organization of information in chunks and in no specific order. When you are using your random ability, you are able to skip steps in a procedure and still produce the desired result.

 

 

Quadrant – Four Styles

The two intersecting continuums create quadrants. The quadrants are the four combinations of perceptual qualities and ordering abilities based on dominance.

By combining four types of preferences the following categories of styles are formed:

  1. Concrete Sequential (CS)
  2. Concrete Random (CR)
  3. Abstract Random (AR)
  4. Abstract Sequential (AS)

 

Gregorc Mind Styles Model

 

Four combinations

Type Preferences
Concrete Sequential Order, logical sequence, following directions, predictability getting facts, and step-by-step instructions
Concrete Random

 

experimenting, taking risks, using their intuition, divergent thinking, and creative thinking
Abstract Sequential

 

structure, well-organized information, analyzing situations, and applying logic
Abstract Random

 

Using imagination, emotional connections, listening to others, bringing harmony, establishing healthy relationships, and thinking holistic

 

 

 

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Gregorc Mind Styles Model

Gregorc Mind Styles Model

 

Anthony Gregorc is the creator of the Mind Styles Model. The Mind Styles Model provides a depiction of how your mind works.

Gregorc’s model helps you gain a better understanding of how you think and learn.

 

Styles of Processing Information

Gregorc focused his research on measuring how learners perceive and order new information. His model describes four cognitive styles for perceiving, processing, and ordering information.

Gregorc defined a style as a set of displayed behaviors that identifies an individual’s underlying mental strengths and abilities. By knowing your style, you can recognize your strengths and weaknesses when it comes to learning.

 

 

Types of Preferences

The Gregorc Mind Styles Model depicts two continuums for how individuals prefer to perceive and order new information.

The two continuums are:

  1. Perceptual preference
  2. Ordering preference

 

Perceptual Preferences

Perceptual preference is how you prefer to grasp or perceive information.

Perceptual qualities are either:

  • Concrete, or
  • Abstract

 

Ordering Preferences

Ordering preference is how you prefer to arranges or processes information.

Ordering qualities are either:

  • sequential (linear), or
  • random (non-linear)

 

Gregorc two Continuums

 

About Each Preference 

Perceptual Preferences 

Concrete perceptions

When you are using your concrete ability, you are registering information through your five senses. You are dealing with the obvious. You are not looking for hidden meanings, or making connections between ideas or concepts.

 

Abstract perceptions

This quality allows you to understand ideas, qualities, and concepts that cannot be seen. When you are using your abstract ability, you are using your intuition and your imagination. You are looking beyond what is seen to the hidden meanings and related concepts.

 

Ordering Preferences

Once you have acquired the information, you then process it mentally. You will have a preference as to how you order that information.

 

Sequential ordering

This preference involves the organization of information in a in a linear, step-by-step manner. When using your sequential ability, you are following a logical train of thought.

 

Random ordering

This preference involves the organization of information in chunks and in no specific order. When you are using your random ability, you are able to skip steps in a procedure and still produce the desired result.

 

 

Quadrant – Four Styles

The Gregorc Mind Styles Model perceptual and processing modes create four preferred styles. The preferred styles are created by the two intersecting continuums. The intersecting continuums create quadrants. The quadrants are the four combinations of perceptual qualities and ordering abilities based on dominance.

By combining the four types of preferences the following categories of styles are formed:

  1. Concrete Sequential (CS)
  2. Concrete Random (CR)
  3. Abstract Random (AR)
  4. Abstract Sequential (AS)

 

Four Mind Styles

Gregorc’s Mind Style Characteristics

 

Concrete Sequential

  • orderly
  • logical
  • based in reality
  • follows directions
  • step-by-step processing
  • enjoys structure
  • organizer

Concrete Random

  • experimenter
  • takes risks
  • using intuition
  • divergent thinker
  • creative
  • skips steps and details
  • curious

 

Abstract Sequential

  • structured thinker
  • well-organized
  • analyzes situations and ideas
  • debates ideas
  • gathers information
  • applies logic
  • abstract thinker
  • self-directed

 

Abstract Random

  • prefers unstructured environment
  • dislikes routine procedures and orderliness
  • people-oriented
  • creates emotional connections
  • creates harmony
  • establishes healthy relationships
  • uses imagination
  • thinks holistic
  • imaginative

Gregorc Mind Styles Model

About Styles

We all exhibit each of the four styles, but we typically have one or two as our preferred or strongest ways to think and learn.

Each person falls somewhere on each of the continuums on the Gregorc Mind Styles Model.  We all have the ability to perceive in concrete and abstract ways to some extent. However, we are more comfortable using one more than the other. The same is true with ordering information. We can order information both randomly and sequentially, but we have a preferred style.

 

 

Additional Learning Styles

4MAT Learning Style Model

Gregorc mind styles model

Kolb Learning Style Model

VAK Learning Preference

Honey Mumford Learning Style

Felder-Silverman Learning Style

Herrmann’s Brain Dominance HBDI

Left-brain and Right-brain Preferences

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI

 

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Index of Learning Styles

The Index of Learning Styles

 

Felder & Soloman – The Index of Learning Styles

People take in and process information in different ways based on their individual preferences. It is helpful to determine your own specific style or preference. There are various assessments that can help determine your style. “The Index of Learning Styles” (ILS) is one of the most popular assessments.

“The Index of Learning Styles” was developed by Richard Felder and Barbara Soloman of North Carolina State University. The “Index of Learning Styles” is an on-line tool used to assess preferences on four dimensions of a learning style model.

The Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire contains 44 two choice questions. The questionnaire is available on-line.

http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html

 

The questionnaire results create a profile that indicate a learner’s preferences. A person’s learning style profile provides an indication of probable strengths and possible tendencies that might lead to challenges in learning.

Index of Learning Styles

 

 

The Learning Style Model

“The Index of Learning Styles” questionnaire is based on a learning styles model developed by Dr. Felder and Dr. Linda Silverman. According to their model there are four dimensions of learning styles. Each of the four scales of the index of learning styles has two opposite preferences. You can think of these dimensions as a continuum with one learning preference on the far left and the other on the far right.

 

The four dimensions

Feldman-soloman index

 

Everyone typically uses all preferences at different times, but they usually prefer one over the other.

 

 

The Four Dimensions

The active/reflective continuum: how do you prefer to process information?

Active Reflective
Active learners learn by doing something with information. They prefer to process information by talking about it and trying it out. They like discussing, applying, or explaining it to others. Reflective learners learn by thinking about information. They prefer to think things through and understand things before acting.

 

The sensing/intuitive continuum: how do you prefer to take in information?

Sensing Intuitive
Sensing learners prefer to take in information that is concrete and factual. They are oriented towards details, facts, and figures and prefer to use proven procedures. They are realistic and like practical applications. Sensors like solving problems by established methods and dislike complications and surprises. Intuitive learners prefer to take in information that is abstract, original, and oriented towards theory. They prefer discovering possibilities and relationships. They look at the big picture and try to grasp overall patterns. They like innovation and dislike repetition.

 

The visual/verbal continuum: how do you prefer information to be presented?

Visual Verbal
Visual learners prefer visual presentations of material. They like pictures, diagrams, graphs, charts, time lines, films, and demonstrations. Verbal learners prefer explanations with words – written and spoken explanations.

 

The sequential/global continuum: how do you prefer to organize information?

Sequential Global
Sequential learners prefer to organize information in a linear, orderly fashion.

They tend to gain understanding in linear steps, with each step following logically from the previous one. They prefer to work with information in an organized and systematic way.

Global learners prefer to organize information more holistically and in a seemingly random manner without seeing connections. They often are able to solve complex problems quickly, but they may have difficulty explaining how they did it.

 

Additional Learning Styles

4MAT Learning Style Model

Gregorc mind styles model

Kolb Learning Style Model

VAK Learning Preference

Honey Mumford Learning Style

Felder-Silverman Learning Style

Herrmann’s Brain Dominance HBDI

Left-brain and Right-brain Preferences

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI

 

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VAK Preferences

 VAK

Visual Auditory Kinesthetic

 

VAK Preferences and Characteristics

VAK Image

 

 

Visual People

 Visual people tend to say things like…

“I see what you mean“

“Looks good to me”

“I get the picture”

“That looks right”

“It’s black and white”

“It’s crystal clear”

“Let me see if I understand.”

  

Preferences

When relaxing – prefer to watch television or video, go to the theatre or read a book

When planning a vacation – prefer reading the brochures

When lost or need directions – prefer to read a map

When connecting with a friend – prefer to talk to people face to face

When operating new equipment – prefer to read instructions

When cooking a new dish – prefers to follow a recipe

When teaching someone – prefers to write instructions

When choosing a new car – prefers to read the reviews

When thanking or rewarding someone – prefers to send a note, letter or card

  

Traits

Fast talkers

Forget names, remember faces

Well dressed, tidy and organized

When inactive or bored, tend to doodle or watch someone or something

When angry, tend to be silent and seethe

 

 

 

Auditory People

Auditory People Say Things Like…

“I hear you”

“That sounds great”

“That clicks”

“I hear what you are saying”

“That rings a bell”

“Listen, why don’t we…”

“Let’s talk this out”

 

Preferences

When relaxing – prefer to listen to music, radio, or books on CD

When planning a vacation – prefer listening to travel recommendations

When lost or need directions – prefer to be told (spoken directions)

When connecting with a friend – prefer to talk to people on the phone

When operating new equipment – prefer to listen to explanation

When cooking a new dish – prefer to call a friend for an explanation of how to make the dish

When teaching someone – prefers to explain verbally

When choosing a new car – prefers to discuss with friends

When thanking or rewarding someone – prefers to give oral praise

  

Traits

Forget faces, remember names

When inactive or bored, tend to talk to themselves or others

Enjoy listening to others, but impatient to talk

When angry, tend to express themselves in outbursts

Do not like reading books or instruction manuals 

 

 

 

Kinesthetic People

Kinesthetic (Touch-oriented) people tend to say things like…

“That feels right” 

”That is hard for me to grasp”

“I catch your drift”

“It’s easy to handle”

“That really touches me”

“I’m itching to go”

“He rubs me the wrong way.”

 

 

Preferences

When relaxing – prefer to play games and sport, writing, playing music, or hang out with friends

When lost or need directions – prefer to be shown the way

When planning a vacation – prefer imagining the experience

When operating new equipment – prefer to have a go at it and just try to use it

When cooking a new dish – prefers to follow instinct and taste as they cook

When teaching someone – prefers to demonstrate or let them have a go at it

When choosing a new car – prefers to test drive

When thanking or rewarding someone – prefers to give a pat on the back

 

Traits

Talks slow and use gestures and expressions

Talks to people while doing something else

Cannot sit still for long periods of time

Hugs or shake hands when meeting people

When inactive or bored, tend to fidget

When angry, tend to clench their fists, grit their teeth and storm off  

 

 

Additional Learning Styles

4MAT Learning Style Model

Gregorc mind styles model

Kolb Learning Style Model

VAK Learning Preference

Honey Mumford Learning Style

Felder-Silverman Learning Style

Herrmann’s Brain Dominance HBDI

Left-brain and Right-brain Preferences

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI

 

 

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Honey Mumford

Homey Mumford title

Honey Mumford Model

 

Honey and Mumford’s Learning Stages and Styles

The Honey Mumford Model is based on the Kolb learning styles, but with a few differences.  It is basically the same as Kolb’s model, with just a few differences.

First, Peter Honey and Alan Mumford adapted David Kolb’s model to use in business.

Therefore, the stages in the cycle were renamed to accord with managerial experiences as they deal with problems and decision-making.

 

Learning Cycle

The typical depiction of these stages and styles would be respectively clockwise from 12 on a four-stage cyclical flow diagram.

The Honey & Mumford stages are:

Stage 1: having an experience

Stage 2: reviewing the experience

Stage 3: concluding from the experience

Stage 4: planning the next steps

Honey Mumford process

Stage 1 – Having an Experience: this is the “here and now” stage. This involves seeking challenges and immediate experience, and being open-minded.

 

Stage 2 – Reviewing the Experience: this is the “stand back” stage. This involves gathering data, pondering, and analyzing.

 

Stage 3 – Concluding from the Experience: This is the “thinking things through” stage. This involves thinking in logical steps, assimilating facts into coherent theories, and being rationally objective.

 

Stage 4 – Planning the next steps: This is the “trying out new ideas” stage. This stage involves trying out new ideas, problem solving, and decision-making.

 

Honey Mumfors Model

 

Four Resultant learning-styles

The four resultant learning-style types from the model are Activists, Reflectors, Theorists, and Pragmatists.

Style Preference

 

Activists want to learn by diving straight in to new experiences, and do not particularly like theory

 

Reflectors like to stand back and gather information before coming to a conclusion

 

Theorists want to fully understand the theory behind a subject before they feel comfortable with it

 

Pragmatists want to see the practical use of what they’re learning, and want practical techniques

 

 

 

Additional Learning Styles

4MAT Learning Style Model

Gregorc mind styles model

Kolb Learning Style Model

VAK Learning Preference

Honey Mumford Learning Style

Felder-Silverman Learning Style

Herrmann’s Brain Dominance HBDI

Left-brain and Right-brain Preferences

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI

 

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Felder-silverman

Learning Style

Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model

People take in and process information in different ways based on their individual preferences. Richard Felder and Linda Silverman developed a model to depict different learning styles and preferences.

Felder and Silverman developed their learning style model for two reasons:

  1. to capture the learning style differences among engineering students, and
  2. to provide a good foundation for engineering instructors to design a teaching approach that would address the learning needs of all students.

 

Although the study was focused on engineering students, the model can be helpful to understand the various learning styles.

The Felder-Silverman Model denotes four areas of personality that contribute to learning. The model creates four dimensions of learning styles. These dimensions can be viewed as a continuum with one learning preference on the far left and the other on the far right. They are active or reflective, sensing or intuitive, visual or verbal, inductive-deductive, and sequential or global. A combination of these styles makes up the individuals learning preferences.

 

Felderman Silverman Model

NOTE: The original model had another dimension; the inductive/deductive dimension. This dimension was later dropped in 2002 by Dr. Felder.

 

 

The Four Dimensions

This model classifies individuals along the following dimensions:

Sensing-Intuitive continuum determines how you prefer to perceive or take in information.

Visual-Verbal continuum determines how you prefer information to be presented.

Active-Reflective continuum determines how you prefer to process information.

Sequential-Global continuum determines how you prefer to organize and progress toward understanding information.

 

Felder-Silverman model

 

 

Felder- Silverman Learning Preferences

Type of Learner Preferences
sensing Prefers concrete thinking, practical, concerned with facts and procedures
intuitive Prefers conceptual thinking, innovative, concerned with theories and meanings
visual prefers visual representations, pictures, diagrams, and flow charts
verbal prefers written and spoken explanations
active Prefers to try things out, working with others in groups
reflective Prefers thinking things through, working alone or with familiar partner
sequential Prefers linear thinking, orderly, learns in small incremental steps
global Prefers holistic thinking, systems thinkers, learns in large leaps

 

Additional Learning Styles

4MAT Learning Style Model

Gregorc mind styles model

Kolb Learning Style Model

VAK Learning Preference

Honey Mumford Learning Style

Felder-Silverman Learning Style

Herrmann’s Brain Dominance HBDI

Left-brain and Right-brain Preferences

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI

 

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4MAT

 

4 - MAT

 

4MAT System

The 4MAT System was developed by Bernice McCarthy in 1972.  According to McCarthy, there are 4 major learning styles, each of which displays different strengths during the learning process.   While all people must engage in all modes of learning, most people seem to favor one particular type.

The 4MAT model is constructed along two continuum’s: perceiving and processing.

Perceiving – the ways people take in new information

Processing – what people do with new information

A person’s individual preference along these continuums determines his or her individual approach to learning.

 

 

Types of Learners

Innovative Learners perceive with sensing and feeling and process reflectively.  They need to answer the question, “Why?”

Analytic Learners perceive with thinking and process reflectively. They need the facts and to answer the question, “What?”

Common Sense Learners perceive with thinking and process actively.  They need to see real-world relevance and answer the question, “How?”

Dynamic Learners perceive with senses and feeling and process actively.  They need to answer the question, “If?”

 

 

4MAT

 

 

Learners Defined

 

Innovative/Imaginative Learners:  Experiencing (Feeling and Reflecting)

This type of learner enjoys creative and innovative approaches to learning. They perceive information concretely and process it reflectively.  They prefer talking about their experiences and feelings, asking questions, and working in groups.  They like to have learning connected to real life problems and to be given the answer to “Why do I need to learn this?”.”

  

Analytic Learners: Conceptualizing (Reflecting and Thinking)

These learners are knowledge-oriented, conceptual, and organized.  These individuals perceive information abstractly and process it reflectively.  These logical, abstract thinkers want to work with facts, ideas, and details. They prefer to learn by thinking through ideas.  They would ask the question: “What do I need to learn?”

  

Common Sense Learners: Applying (Thinking and Doing)

These learners like active problem solving, learning through discovery, touching, manipulating, constructing, and spatial tasks.  They perceive information abstractly and process it actively.  They like hands-on experience when learning something new and really want to use what they learn to apply to new situations. The question they ask is; “How do I use the information?”

  

Dynamic Learners: Creating (Creating and Acting)

These learners prefer to learn through self-discovery and working independently. They enjoy open-ended tasks that involve risk taking.  They perceive information concretely and process it actively.  They want action; They want to see, hear, touch and feel.  They ask the question: “What if?”

 

 

Four learning-styles

The four learning-style types from the 4MAT model are Innovative, Analytic, Common Sense, and Dynamic.

Style

Preference

Innovative/Imaginative Interested in personal meaning and making connections. They prefer to have reasons for learning.  Ideally, reasons that connect new information with personal experience and establish that information’s usefulness in daily life.

 

Analytic Interested in acquiring facts in order to deepen their understanding of concepts and processes.  Prefer to Listen to and think about information, seek facts, and think things through.

 

Common Sense interested in how things work; they want to “get in and try it”

 

Dynamic Interested in self-directed discovery.  Prefer to seek hidden possibilities, explore, learn by trial and error

 

 

 

Additional Learning Styles

4MAT Learning Style Model

Gregorc mind styles model

Kolb Learning Style Model

VAK Learning Preference

Honey Mumford Learning Style

Felder-Silverman Learning Style

Herrmann’s Brain Dominance HBDI

Left-brain and Right-brain Preferences

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI

 

   

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VAK Learning Strategies

VAK Image

VAK Learning Strategies 

VAK Learning strategies can be employed to enhance learning in various situations.  Depending on a person’s preferred learning style there are different actions a person can take to enhance his or her learning.

Below is a list of suggested activities and for each of the VAK learning styles:

 

VISUAL LEARNERS

Learn best by:

  • Creating their own strong visual links
  • Writing down key facts
  • Look at people when they talk
  • Creating a Mind Map
  • Visualizing what they are learning
  • Underlining/highlighting new information/key points
  • Creating pictures/diagrams from what they are learning
  • Using timelines and lists for remembering
  • Putting key points on to index cards and sorting them into order
  • Using pictures, diagrams, charts, film, video, graphics, etc

 

 

AUDITORY LEARNERS

Learn best by:

  • Listening a seminar, presentation, or explanation
  • Recording a seminar
  • studying with a friend so that you can talk out loud and hear the information
  • Reciting out loud the things you want to remember
  • Making a tape of key points to listen
  • Verbally summarizing in their own words
  • Explaining the subject to someone else

 

 

KINESTHETIC LEARNERS

Learn best by:

  • Getting physically and actively involved in their learning
  • Writing down key facts
  • Making models
  • Walking around while they read
  • walking around while reciting to yourself as they memorize facts
  • Underlining/highlighting new information/key points

 

Additional Learning Styles

4MAT Learning Style Model

Gregorc mind styles model

Kolb Learning Style Model

VAK Learning Preference

Honey Mumford Learning Style

Felder-Silverman Learning Style

Herrmann’s Brain Dominance HBDI

Left-brain and Right-brain Preferences

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI

 

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HBDI

HBDI

Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument HBDI

 

Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument

Ned Herrmann developed a four-quadrant model of cognitive preferences and a questionnaire called the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI). The Herrmann Brain Dominant Instrument is based on the idea that one part of the brain is dominant over the others.

Herrmann created his Brain Dominance Instrument based on his Whole Brain Model Theory. He created his model to illustrate that each person’s brain basically has four quadrants when it comes to the process of thinking and learning. The two halves of the brain (right and left) are further divided into a front and back half, making four sections in the brain.

Each of these sections or quadrants are characterized by different learning or thinking styles. Depending on which quadrants you engage, your learning and thinking processes can be significantly different.

 

 

Herrmann’s Model

Herrmann’s model divides the brain into four different systems with four preferred styles. His model emphasizes the fact that there are really four parts of the brain where dominance’s exist:

A: Left cerebral hemisphere – analytical

B: Left limbic system – sequential

C: Right limbic system – interpersonal

D: Right cerebral hemisphere – imaginative

 

brain-dominance

 

Preferences

Brain dominance leads to thinking style preferences, which impact what you pay attention to and how and in what way you learn best.

Each quadrant has preferred learning or thinking activities.

  • The A quadrant thinkers prefer quantifying, analyzing, theorizing and processing logically.
  • The B quadrant thinkers prefer organizing, sequencing, evaluating and practicing.
  • The C quadrant thinkers prefer sharing, internalizing, moving and being involved.
  • The D quadrant thinkers prefer exploring, discovering, conceptualizing and synthesizing.

 

 

Dominance

People have varying degrees of dominance in these quadrants. However, individuals are typically more dominant in one of these four areas, which is often manifested by his or her personality type.

However, although a person may be dominant in one area, the research has found that people often use more than one style or quadrant. In fact, most people have primary and secondary preferences for quadrants.

A person may have a primary preference which is an areas of the brain he or she goes too easily and is comfortable with. They also will typically have secondary preferences which are areas of the brain that can be accessed when necessary. There are also preferences which a person may have difficulty accessing or may avoid using.

  hbdi

A Quadrant: Analytical Thinking

  • Qualities: logical, factual, rational, analytical, critical, technical, mathematical, and quantitative.
  • Preferred activities: collecting data, problem solving, judging ideas based on facts, using statistical and scientific data, and logical reasoning.

B Quadrant: Sequential Thinking

  • Qualities: conservative, controlled, sequential, structured, articulate, organized, detailed, and planned.
  • Preferred activities: collecting data, planning, implementing, time management, and organizing schedules.

C Quadrant: Interpersonal Thinking

  • Qualities: kinesthetic, emotional, spiritual, musical, sensory, feeling.
  • Preferred activities: listening to and sharing ideas, personal interaction, teaching, and expressing ideas.

 

D Quadrant: Imaginative Thinking

    • Qualities: Visual, holistic, intuitive, Imaginative, innovative, artistic, spatial, and conceptual.
    • Preferred activities: Looking at the big picture, generating ideas, taking initiative, causing change, and brainstorming.

 

 

 

Personality Types

Individuals are dominant in one of these four areas, which is evident by their personality type.

Quadrant A:  Theorists (analytical)

Quadrant B: Organizers (sequential)

Quadrant C: Humanitarians (interpersonal)

Quadrant D: Innovators (imaginative)

 

Theorists – Prefers lecture, facts, and details, critical thinking, textbooks and readings, etc. They are factually-oriented learner, takes a logical, analytical, quantitative approach to learning tasks

Organizers – prefer to learn by outlining, checklists, exercises and problem solving with steps, policies, and procedures. They learn in a sequential and organized way, and when instructional exercises are structured and detailed.

Humanitarians – prefer brainstorming, metaphors, illustrations and pictures, mind mapping and synthesis, and holistic approaches. They are interpersonal, emotional and kinesthetic.

Innovators – Prefer cooperative learning and group discussion, role-playing, and dramatization. They take a holistic approach and are very visual.

 

Additional Learning Styles

4MAT Learning Style Model

Gregorc mind styles model

Kolb Learning Style Model

VAK Learning Preference

Honey Mumford Learning Style

Felder-Silverman Learning Style

Herrmann’s Brain Dominance HBDI

Left-brain and Right-brain Preferences

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI

 

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