Tag: learning Objectives


Three Parts of an Objective

The Three Parts of an Objective

Learning objectives describe what a participant will be able to demonstrate in terms of knowledge, skills, and/or values upon completion of a learning event.  The creation and clear articulation of learning objective serves as the foundation for evaluating the effectiveness of the learning process.

 

Three Parts of an Objective

Every learning objective should contain at least three parts:

  • Performance
  • Conditions
  • Criteria

 

Performance – Indicates what participants are expected to do as a result of the learning activity

Conditions – Specifies under what conditions the participants should perform

Criteria – Identifies how well the participants have to perform to satisfy the requirements

 

Performance

A learning objective is participant-centered and performance based. It should describe what participants will be able to do as a result of the learning event. You want to answer the question “What should the participant to be able to do as a result of the learning event?”

 

Action Verb

Since you are describing what participants will be able to do as a result of the learning event, the statement should have an action verb. That action verb should best describe the type of behavior that the participant needs to display.

 

One Verb

Each objective should address just one behavior. Therefore, only one verb should be used for each learning objective. If there are more than one behaviors that need to be displayed, then the objective should be broken down into one or more enabling objectives that support the main terminal objective.

 

Observable Behavior

The verb you use should be an action that is observable. The only way you can determine whether or not a participant has learned something is to observe some kind of behavior that indicates learning has taken place. You want to be able to see the results. Verbs such as “understand,” “know,” or “comprehend” are not easily observable and should be avoided.

Possible action verbs include; list, identify, explain, describe, calculate, compare, demonstrate, and analyze.

 

NOTE: When creating learning objectives consult Blooms Taxonomy for a full list of observable action verbs. Bloom’s list of verbs for writing learning objectives

 

 

 

Condition

A learning objective should describe conditions under which the participants will perform the behavior.  The conditions under which the task will be performed typically addresses time, place, resources, and circumstances.

 

You want to answer the questions:

“What will you give the person to use?”

“What will the environment be?”

 

Possible conditions include;

  • using a calculator
  • referencing a chart
  • while being monitored
  • using a drill and saw
  • in 10 feet of water
  • on a boat
  • in the daylight

 

 

Criteria

A learning objective should describe the criteria that will be used to evaluate performance to determine what is acceptable. The criteria should communicate the level of proficiency that is expected. It might describe how the learner will be able to perform in terms of quality, quantity, and/or time measurements.

 

You may want to answer the questions:

“How many?”

“How fast?”

“How well?”

 

There can be more than one measurable criterion. You may create a time criteria as well as a proficiently criteria. For example, a participant may be required to complete 10 functions within 20 minutes with 80% or more accuracy.

 

Possible standards include;

  • within 10 minutes
  • within acceptable industry guidelines
  • 80% or better
  • assembling 15 items
  • in compliance with a chart

 

 

Additional Links

Learning Objectives

Writing Learning Objectives

Creating Learning Objectives

Components of Learning Objectives

Terminal Objectives

 

 

Please follow and like us:

Creating Learning Objectives

Creating Learning Objectives

 

What is a learning objective?

A Learning Objective is an explicit statement that clearly expresses what the participant will be able to do as a result of a learning event. It states what knowledge, skills, or attitudes the learners will be able to exhibit following instruction. It specifically identifies observable behaviors the learners must demonstrate in order to confirm the intended learning took place.

 

 

What is the difference between a learning goal and a Learning Objective?

A learning goal is a broad statement of a desired outcome that should result from an instructional program.  A goal just describes a general outcome. It explains broad intentions of the course and does not contain specific achievements. Goals just describe what the participant will gain from the overall learning event, and not what they will actually be able to do. An example of a goal might be to “understand,” to “comprehend,” or to “appreciate.” Learning goals are intended to help focus on the long-range big picture.

Learning objectives, on the other hand, are specific, observable, and measurable learning outcomes. They are benchmarks by which to measure progress towards the achievement of the larger learning goal.

 

 

Why have learning objectives?

Learning objectives serve the following purposes:

  • Informs learners what is important
  • Gives learners a clear picture of what is expected of them
  • Helps learners understand how they will be assessed
  • Helps determine the selection of course content
  • Helps develop an instructional strategy
  • Provides guidance on development of instructional materials
  • Guides selection of teaching/learning activities
  • Guides in the selection of assessment methods
  • Helps development of assessments
  • Ensures connection of content and assessment
  • Encourages overall effective course design and development

 

 

What are the key components of a learning objective?

A learning objective has three major components:

  1. Performance – Indicates what participants are expected to as a result of the learning activity
  2. Conditions – Specifies under what conditions should the participants perform
  3. Criteria – Identifies how well the participants have to perform to satisfy the requirements

 

 

 

How do you create an effective learning objective?

 

Begin with the End in Mind

When creating a Learning Objective begin with the end goal in mind.  First, identify the overall goal of the course.  Then begin to write each Learning Objective as a step towards reaching that goal.

Indicate Expected Performance

A Learning Objective is participant-centered and performance based. Therefore, it should focus on the learner’s performance and not instructor’s performance. It should also describe what participants will be able to do as a result of the learning event. It should have action verbs that describe a specific and observable behavior. Thus, find an observable action word that captures what the learner should be able to do at the completion of the learning.

Describe the Condition

A Learning Objective should describe conditions under which the participants will perform the behavior.  Therefore, indicate the conditions under which the task will be performed. These conditions typically addresses time, place, resources, references, and circumstances.

 

Set Criteria

A Learning Objective should describe the criteria that will be used to evaluate performance to determine what is acceptable. Thus, it must be measurable.  The criteria should communicate the level of proficiency that is expected. The criteria should describe how the learner will be able to perform in terms of quality, quantity, and time measurements. Most importantly, it should be attainable.

 

 

How will you know it is a well-written Learning Objectives?

Well-written Learning Objectives;

  •  are participant-centered
  •  have specific action verbs
  •  are observable and measurable
  •  have appropriate assessment methods
  •  state desired performance criteria

 

 

 

Please follow and like us:

Writing Learning Objectives

Writing Learning Objectives

A learning objective is an explicit statement that clearly expresses what the participant will be able to do as a result of a learning event. It contains action verbs that are observable and measurable. It identifies what behaviors a participant must demonstrate in order to confirm the intended learning took place.

 

Why have learning objectives?

Creating clear objectives for a learning session serves the following purposes:

  • Provides direction for the learning experience
  • Gives the learners a clear picture of what to expect and what is expected of them
  • Helps ensure that the performance outcomes are connected to the learning activities
  • Guides selection of learning activities
  • Connects content and assessment
  • Forms the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the session

 

Components of Learning Objectives

The learning objective has three main components:

writing-learning-objectives

Performance – Indicates what participants are expected to as a result of the learning activity

Conditions – Specifies under what conditions should the participants perform

Criteria – Identifies how well the participants have to perform to satisfy the requirements

 

Writing Learning Objectives

Well-written learning objectives have the following elements:

  1. are participant-centered
  2. have specific action verbs that are observable and measurable
  3. have appropriate assessment method
  4. state desired performance criteria

 

writing-learning-objectives

Steps on writing learning objectives

STEP 1: Make it participant centered

The objective should be focused on participant learning, rather than the instructor’s teaching. Learning objectives are not about what information the instructors can provide, but rather what the audience can demonstrate at the completion of the event. Therefore begin your objective by with one of the following phrases or a similar phrase.

“By the end of this course, the learner will be able to…”

“By the end of this session, participants will be able to…”

“By the end of this class, the student will be able to…”

“By the end of this section, the student will be able to…”

 

STEP 2: Use an observable and measurable action verb

An effective learning objectives will include action verbs that are specific, concise, observable, and measurable. Verbs such as “understand,” “know,” or “comprehend” are not easily observable and measurable, so they should be avoided.

Possible action verbs include; list, identify, explain, describe, calculate, compare, demonstrate, and analyze.

NOTE: Consult Blooms Taxonomy for a full list of observable action verbs.

EXAMPLES:

“By the end of this course, the learner will be able to identify three species of birds…”

“By the end of this course, the learner will be able to demonstrate how to change a faucet on a sink…”

 

STEP 3: Describe under what conditions the actions must be performed

A learning objective should describe conditions under which the participants will perform the behavior.  These conditions typically addresses time, place, resources, and circumstances.

Possible conditions include;

  • using a calculator
  • referencing a chart
  • while being monitored
  • using a drill and saw
  • in 10 feet of water
  • on a boat
  • in the daylight

 

EXAMPLE:

“By the end of this course, the learner will be able to identify three species of birds referencing the guide book…”

“By the end of this course, the learner will be able to demonstrate how to change a faucet on a sink using the instructional job aid…”

 

STEP 4: Set a required criteria

Finally, the objective should describe the criteria that will be used to evaluate performance to determine what is acceptable. The criteria should communicate the level of proficiency that is expected. Often it describes how the learner will be able to perform in terms of quality, quantity, and time measurements.

Possible standards include;

  • within 10 minutes
  • within acceptable industry guidelines
  • 80% or better
  • assembling 15 items
  • in compliance with a chart

 

EXAMPLE:

“By the end of this course, the learner will be able to identify three species of birds referencing the guide book with 100% accuracy.”

“By the end of this course, the learner will be able to demonstrate how to change a faucet on a sink using the instructional job aid within 10 minutes.”

 

Additional Links

Learning Objectives

Creating Learning Objectives

Components of Learning Objectives

Terminal Objectives

 

Please follow and like us:

Components of Learning Objectives

Components of Learning Objectives

 

Learning Objectives

A learning objective is an explicit statement that clearly expresses what the participant will be able to do as a result of a learning event.

Learning objectives are specific, observable, and measurable learning outcomes that describe what the learner will be able to do as a result of the learning activity. They are benchmarks by which to measure progress towards the achievement of the larger goal.

 

 

Components of Learning Objectives

Educational theorist Robert Mager created a framework for developing learning objectives. He constructed them around three main components:

Performance – Indicates what participants are expected to as a result of the learning activity

Conditions – Specifies under what conditions should the participants perform

Criteria – Identifies how well the participants have to perform to satisfy the requirements

 

Components of learning Objectives

 

Performance

A learning objective is participant-centered and performance based. It should describe what participants will be able to do as a result of the learning event. Therefore, the statement should have an action verb that best describes the type of behavior that the participant needs to display.

The only way you can determine whether or not a participant has learned something is to observe some kind of behavior that indicates learning has taken place. Therefore, the action verbs should be specific, observable, and measurable. Verbs such as “understand,” “know,” or “comprehend” are not easily observable and measurable, and should be avoided.

Possible action verbs include; list, identify, explain, describe, calculate, compare, demonstrate, and analyze.

NOTE: Consult Blooms Taxonomy for a full list of observable action verbs.

 

 

Condition

A learning objective should describe conditions under which the participants will perform the behavior.

The conditions under which the task will be performed typically addresses time, place, resources, and circumstances.

Possible conditions include;

  1. using a calculator
  2. referencing a chart
  3. while being monitored
  4. using a drill and saw
  5. in 10 feet of water
  6. on a boat
  7. in the daylight

 

 

Criteria

A learning objective should describe the criteria that will be used to evaluate performance to determine what is acceptable.

The criteria should communicate the level of proficiency that is expected. It might describe how the learner will be able to perform in terms of quality, quantity, and time measurements.

Possible standards include;

  1. within 10 minutes
  2. within acceptable industry guidelines
  3. 80% or better
  4. assembling 15 items
  5. in compliance with a chart

 

Links:

Learning Objectives

Writing Learning Objectives

Creating Learning Objectives

Terminal Objectives

 

References

Mager, R. F. (1997). Preparing Instructional Objectives (3rd ed.). Atlanta, Georgia: CEP Press.

Clark, D.R. (2004). Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains. www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html.

 

Please follow and like us:

Terminal Objectives

Terminal Objectives and Enabling Objectives

Learning Objectives target

 

Learning Objectives

A learning objective is an explicit statement that expresses what the participant will be able to do as a result of a learning event. It identifies what behaviors a participant must demonstrate in order to confirm the intended learning took place.

Learning objectives can be divided into two categories:

  • Terminal Objective (Performance)
  • Enabling Objective (Supporting)

 

Terminal Objectives and Enabling Objectives

 Terminal Objectives

Terminal Objectives

A Terminal or Performance Objective is a statement in specific and measurable terms that describes what the learner will be able to do as a result of engaging in a learning activity.

A Terminal Objective should be created for each of the tasks addressed in the learning program. The objective should be focused at the highest level of learning an individual will accomplish by competing the learning event.

Each written objective should include a task/performance, condition, and a standard.

Task or Performance: States what the participant will be doing and how he or she will demonstrate the knowledge, skill, or behavior.

Condition: Specifies under what conditions the participants should perform the task.

Standards: Defines what level the participant must perform the task at.

 

Terminal Objectives describe results and not processes. The objective should be written from the perspective of what the learner will be able to do at the end of the session, and not what the instructor will teach.

After the terminal objective is created, it should be analyzed to determine if it needs one or more Enabling Objectives.

 

 

 

Enabling Objectives

Enabling Objectives are supporting objectives for Terminal Objectives. They are created by analyzing Terminal Objective. They allow the Terminal Objective to be broken down into smaller, more manageable objectives.

A well written Enabling Objectives will state the expectations of the learner’s performance. They will define the skills, knowledge, or behaviors the learner must reach in order to successfully complete the Terminal Objectives. Each Enabling Objective addresses a component of the Terminal Objective and helps track the learner’s progress towards that objective.

 

 

The Enabling Objectives should outline a sequence of learning activities for the instruction phase of the lesson plan. They essentially outline the steps necessary for a learner to acquire new skills and knowledge leading to the performance level stated in the Terminal Objective. They should cover all of the skills the learner needs to master to meet the Terminal Objective.

Similar to the Terminal Objective, the Enabling Objective is written from the perspective of the learner and what he or she must do to accomplish the Terminal Objective.

 

 

EXAMPLE

Terminal Objective

By the end of the session, the learner will be able to balance his or her checkbook

 

Enabling Objectives:

  1. The learner will be able to distinguish a credit from debit
  2. The learner will be able to identify the correct columns for each entry
  3. The learner will be able to enter the data in the correct columns

In the example, the Terminal Objective of “balance his or her checkbook” is the end result. The Enabling Objectives list the skills, knowledge, and/or behavior he or she will need to accomplish the Terminal Objective.

 

 Additional Links

Learning Objectives

Writing Learning Objectives

Creating Learning Objectives

Components of Learning Objectives

 

 

Please follow and like us:

Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives target

A learning objective is an explicit statement that clearly expresses what the participant will be able to do as a result of a learning event. It contains action verbs that are observable and measurable. It identifies what behaviors a participant must demonstrate in order to confirm the intended learning took place.

Some other names for learning objectives include:

  • Learning outcomes
  • Performance objectives
  • Educational objectives
  • Instructional objectives

 

Goals vs. Objectives

The terms “goals” and “objectives” are often used interchangeably when discussing learning outcomes. Although they do have similarities, at the core, they are different. The characteristic that distinguishes goals from objectives is the level of specificity.

Goals define the overall purpose of the learning in broad, general terms and do not provide specific guidance on how to achieve that purpose. Goals just describe what the participant will gain from the overall learning event. They are intended to help focus on the long-range big picture.

Learning objectives, on the other hand, are much more explicit than goals. Learning objectives are specific, observable, and measurable learning outcomes that describe what the learner will be able to do as a result of the learning activity. They are benchmarks by which to measure progress towards the achievement of the larger goal.

Example of a goal: “Increase awareness of the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle.”

Example of a learning objective: “By the end of this session, participants will be able to list five ways they can reduce stress”.

 

 

Purposes of Learning Objectives

Learning objectives are essential for building a strong foundation for a learning event. Creating objectives should be one of the first steps an instructional designer does after the initial needs analysis.

Clearly defined objectives guide the design of instruction, delivery of instruction, and evaluation of learning.

Objectives are instrumental in the instructional planning stage for selecting appropriate content, instructional methods, learning activities, and assessment measures. They also help in the delivery by informing the participants of what is expected of them.

Objectives also provide participant with guidelines for assessing progress and setting priorities. By knowing where the learning is intend to go, it increases the chances of the learner will end up there.

Objectives purpose

Learning objectives also serve as the basis to evaluate and measure the effectiveness of the overall instruction and learning process. They help determine if the intended learning took place.

 

 

Components of Learning Objectives

Educational theorist Robert Mager created a framework for developing learning objectives. He constructed them around three main components:

Learning Objectives Components

Performance – Indicates what participants are expected to as a result of the learning activity

Conditions – Specifies under what conditions should the participants perform

Criteria – Identifies how well the participants have to perform to satisfy the requirements

 

 

Well-written Learning Objectives

Well-written learning objectives;

  1. are participant-centered
  2. have specific action verbs
  3. are observable and measurable
  4. Have appropriate assessment methods
  5. state desired performance criteria

 

Well-written learning objectives are written in terms of learning outcomes (i.e. what the participant will be able to do as a result of the session). The objective should be focused on participant learning, rather than instructor teaching.

Learning objectives are not about what information the instructors can provide, but rather what the audience can demonstrate at the completion of the activity. Hence, the objective often begins with a phrase similar to “By the end of this session, participants will be able to…”

The objective statements should also provide a clear picture of the expected outcome or performance as a result of the learning activity. Well-written learning objectives will include action verbs that are specific, concise, observable, and measurable.

 

Terminal Objectives

 

References

Mager, R. F. (1997). Preparing Instructional Objectives (3rd ed.). Atlanta, Georgia: CEP Press.

Clark, D.R. (2004). Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains. www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html.

 

Please follow and like us:

Verbs for Learning Objectives

 

 

Learning Objectives

Verbs for Learning Objectives / Learning Outcomes

 

 

 

The verbs used in learning objectives or learning outcomes should correspond to the level of thought at which the learners are expected to perform or function. The following lists of verbs are provided to help recognize the levels of thought and to help you write learning objectives that address the various levels of skill your learner should attain. By creating learning objectives using these verbs, you indicate explicitly what the learner must do in order to demonstrate learning.

 

 

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning

This list is arranged according to Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning. Bloom’s Taxonomy classifies thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The categories are ordered from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract. Each level becomes more challenging as you move higher.

 

 

Blooms Picture

 

 

Cognitive competency or complexity begins at the knowledge level learning and advances up the taxonomy to comprehension, application, and then to the higher order thinking skills involved in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised

 

 

 

 

 

 

Determining Verbs for Learning Objectives

When determining your learning objectives, consider using a verb from the appropriate cognitive domain below. This list will help you express specific performance expectations you have of the learners at the completion of the course.

 

 

 

 

Knowledge

This is the lowest level of learning. This cognitive level focuses on the ability to remember or retrieve previously learned material. The learning standards at this level simply ask the learner to recognize and recall data or information.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Knowledge domain are:  

Arrange

Define

Delineate

Describe

Distinguish

Identify

Indicate

Group

List   

Label

Locate

Match

Memorize    

Name

Outline       

Order
Quote

Recall

Recite

Repeat

Record

Recognize

Specify

Select

State

Underline

Write

 

 

 

 

Comprehension

This cognitive level focuses on the ability to grasp or construct meaning from material. The learning standards at this level ask the learner to demonstrate understanding of the meaning and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, summarizing, or paraphrasing.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Comprehension domain are:  

Calculate

Conclude

Convert

Choose

Characterize

Classify

Complete

Discuss       

Describe

Depict

Determine

Differentiate

Draw

Explain

Express      

Establish

Illustrate

Interpret

Identify

Infer

Locate

Outline

Paraphrase

Represent

Report        

Review        

Recognize

Restate

Summarize 

Select

Sort

Tell

Translate

 

 

 

 

Application

This level focuses on the ability to use information in new ways or situations. The learning standards at this level ask the learner to use the newly acquired information in a new situation or different way from the original context.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Application domain are:  

Apply

Calculate

Change

Collect

Compute

Conduct

Construct

Demonstrate

Develop

Dramatize

Draw

Employ

Exhibit

Experiment

Generalize

Illustrate

Implement

Interpret

Initiate

Make

Manipulate

Operate

Organize

Perform

Practice

Prescribe

Prepare

Produce

Relate

Restructure

Schedule

Shop

Solve 

Show 

Sketch

Teach

Translate

Use

Utilize

 

 

 

 

Analysis

This level consider to be a higher order of thinking. This level focuses on the ability to examine and break information or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. The learning standards at this level ask the learner to separate the whole into its parts, in order to better understand the organization of the whole and the relationships between the parts.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Analysis domain are:  

Analyze

Appraise

Arrange

Calculate

Categorize

Classify

Compare

Conclude

Contrast

Correlate

Critique

Deduce

Debate

Detect

Determine

Develop

Diagram

Diagnose

Differentiate

Discover

Dissect

Distinguish

Draw

Estimate

Evaluate

Examine

Experiment

Explore

Group

Identify

Infer

Inquire

Inspect

Inventory

Investigate

Order

Organize

Predict

Question

Probe

Relate

Research

Scrutinize

Separate

Sequence

Solve

Survey

Test

 

 

 

 

Synthesis

This level also considered to be a higher order of thinking. This level focuses on the ability to compile information in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions. The learning standards at this level ask the learner to put parts together to form a unique new whole or build a structure from diverse elements.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Synthesis domain are:  

Arrange

Appraise

Assess

Assemble

Collect

Combine

Compile

Compose

Construct

Create

Consolidate

Choose

Compare

Critique

Derive

Design

Develop

Devise

Estimate

Evaluate

Formulate

Forecast

Generalize

Generate

Hypothesize

Improve

Infer

Invent

Judge

Manage

Measure

Merge

Modify

Organize

Originate

Imagine

Plan

Predict

Prepare

Pretend

Produce

Propose

Rate

Reorganize

Revise

Show

Select

Set up

Synthesize

Validate

Value

Test

Theorize

Write

 

 

 

Evaluation

This is considered by Bloom to be the highest level of learning. This cognitive level focuses on the ability to make judgments about the value of ideas or materials and able to present and defend opinions based on a set of criteria. The learning standards at this highest level ask the learner to judge, check, critique the value of material to make decisions.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Evaluation domain are:  

Appraise

Argue

Arrange

Assemble

Assess

Choose

Collect

Compose

Construct

Create

Compare

Conclude

Critique

Criticize

Debate

Decide

Deduce

Defend

Determine

Discriminate

Design

Develop

Devise

Envision

Estimate

Evaluate

Examine

Formulate

Grade

Inspect

Infer

Judge

Justify

Manage

Measure

Modify

Organize

Plan

Predict

Prioritize

Probe

Prepare

Produce

Propose

Rank

Rate

Review

Reconstruct

Recommend

Referee

Reject

Revise

Score

Select

Support

Set-up

Synthesize

Systematize

Validate

Value

 

 

 

 

 

 

Please follow and like us: