Tag: Bloom’s Taxonomy


SOLO Taxonomy

SOLO Taxonomy

 

SOLO Taxonomy is a systematic way of describing how a learner’s understanding develops from simple to complex when learning different subjects or tasks.

The SOLO stands for:

Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes

 

Alternative to Bloom’s Taxonomy

The SOLO Taxonomy (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) was devised by Biggs and Collis in 1982 as an alternative to Bloom’s (Cognitive Domain) Taxonomy. Bloom’s Taxonomy has been used for several decades to develop learning and teaching strategies. Bloom’s categorizes learning from simply remembering to more complex cognitive structures such as analyzing and evaluating.

 

Structure of the Observed Learning Outcomes

Through their work, Biggs and Collis looked at the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcomes produced by learners in terms of complexity. Their model describes levels of increasing complexity in a learner’s understanding of subjects or performance tasks.

The SOLO Taxonomy is divided into five levels of understanding. It is hierarchal and each stage involves the previous and adds something to it.

 

Uses for SOLO Taxonomy

  • to increase quality and complexity of thought
  • to set learning objectives
  • to define learning outcomes
  • to created assessment criteria
  • to create and evaluate learning programs

 

SOLO Taxonomy

 

Five Hierarchical Levels of Understanding

The SOLO model consists of the following five hierarchical levels of understanding that range from incompetence to expertise.

  1. Prestructural:  Incompetent – nothing known about the subject or task
  2. Unistructural:  One relevant aspect is known
  3. Multistructural:  Several relevant independent aspects are known
  4. Relational:  Aspects of knowledge are integrated into a structure
  5. Extended Abstract:  Knowledge is generalized into a new domain

 

SOLO Taxonomy Diagram

 

 

 

Levels of Understanding Explained

Prestructural

At this level, the learner is simply acquiring bits of unconnected information. It has no organization and does not make sense to them. The learner does not understood the information, therefore, cannot demonstrate understanding.

The learner’s response shows they have missed the point of the information.

Unistructural

At this level, the learner has only a basic concept about the subject or task. They are able to make simple and obvious connections, but the broader significance of the information is not understood.

The learner’s response demonstrates a concrete understanding of the topic, but it only focuses on one relevant aspect.

 

Multistructural

At this level, the learner can understand several aspects of the subject or task, but its relationship to each other and to the whole remains separated. Ideas and concepts around a topic are not connected. The learner can make a number of connections, but the significance of the whole is not understood.

The learner’s response focuses on some relevant aspects, but they are treated independently.

 

Relational

At this level, the learner is able to understand the significance of the parts in relation to the whole. Ideas and concepts are linked, and they provide a coherent understanding of the whole.

The learner’s response demonstrates an understanding of the topic by being able to join all the parts together. They are able to show how the parts contribute to the whole.

 

Extended Abstract

At this level, the learner is able to make connections not only within the given subject field, but also make connections beyond it. They are able to generalize and transfer the principles and concepts from one subject area into a new and different domain.

The learner’s response demonstrates they are able to conceptualize at a level that extends beyond what has been taught. They are able to create new ideas and concepts based on their understanding of the subject or task being taught.

 

 

Sample Verbs

The SOLO taxonomy lists verbs associated with learning outcomes at each level.

Level Verbs
Prestructural Failed, unsuccessful, flunked, Learner missed the point
Unistructural List, Name, Memorize, Define, Identify, Do a simple procedure
Multistructural Define, Describe, Classify, Combine, Do algorithms
Relational Analyze, Explain, Integrate, Sequence, Relate, Apply, Compare, Contrast
Extended Abstract Reflect, Evaluate, Theorize, Hypothesize, Generalize, Predict, Create, Imagine

 

 

Related Links

Finks Taxonomy Verbs

Learning Taxonomies

Six Facets of Understanding

Solo Taxonomy

Taxonomy of Significant Learning

 

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Affective Domain

Affective Domain of Learning

Most people think of learning as an intellectual or mental function. However, learning is not a just a cognitive (mental) function. You can also learn attitudes, behaviors, and physical skills. These different categories create three domains of learning. These three domains of learning can be categorized as cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (skills) and affective (attitudes).

 

Benjamin Bloom

The affective domain is one of three domains in Bloom’s Taxonomy.

In the 1950’s, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists (including David Krathwohl) whose goal was to develop a system of categories of learning behavior to assist in the design and assessment of educational learning. The group identified three domains of learning.

  • Cognitive (thinking)
  • Affective (feeling)
  • Psychomotor (doing)

 

The group focused on the cognitive domain which involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. In 1956, they published Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain.

The affective domain was later addressed in 1965 in Taxonomy of educational objectives: Handbook II: Affective domain (Krathwohl, D.R., Bloom, B.S., and Masia, B.B.).

 

Affective Domain

The affective domain involves our feelings, emotions, and attitudes. This domain includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. This domain is categorized into 5 subdomains, which include:

  1. Receiving
  2. Responding
  3. Valuing
  4. Organization
  5. Characterization

 

 

Internalization

This domain forms a hierarchical structure and is arranged from simpler feelings to those that are more complex. This hierarchical structure is based on the principle of internalization. Internalization refers to the process whereby your affect toward something goes from a general awareness level to a point where the affect is internalized and consistently guides or controls your behavior. Therefore, with movement to more complexity, you become more involved, committed, and internally motivated.

 

Affective Domain

Affective Domain Categories

There are five levels in the affective domain moving from the lowest order to the highest:

Receiving – involves passively paying attention and being aware of the existence of certain ideas, material, or phenomena.

Responding – actively participating in the learning process. You are not only aware of a stimulus, but reacting to it in some way.

Valuing – ability to see the value or worth of something and express it.

Organizing – Putting together different values, information, and ideas then relating them to already held beliefs to create your own unique value system.

Characterizing – Acting consistently in accordance with the values you have internalized.

 

 

 

Affective Domain Described

Receiving

Receiving is the lowest level of the affective domain. It is simply the awareness of feelings and emotions. It involves passively paying attention and being aware of the existence of certain ideas, material, or phenomena. Without this level, no learning can occur. If information is never received and cannot be remembered.

Examples: Listening attentively to someone, watching a movie, listening to a lecture, watching waves crash on the sand.

 

Responding

This level involves actively participating in the learning process. You are not only aware of a stimulus, but you react or respond to it in some way.

Examples: Having a conversation, participating in a group discussion, giving a presentation, complying with procedures, or following directions.

Valuing

Valuing is the ability to see the worth of something and express it. Valuing is concerned with the worth you attach to a particular object, phenomenon, behavior, or piece of information.

This level ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. Simpler acceptance may include your desire for a team to improve its skills, while more complex level of commitment may include taking responsibly for the overall improvement of the team.

Examples: Proposing a plan to improve team skills, supporting ideas to increase proficiency, or informing leaders of possible issues.

 

Organizing

Organizing involves putting together different values, information, and ideas then relating them to already held beliefs to bring it into an internally consistent philosophy. Essentially, it is ability to prioritize one value over another and create a unique value system. The focus of this level is on comparing, relating, and assessing values to create that unique value system.

Examples: Spending more time studying then playing sports, recognizing the need for balance between work and family, or prioritizing time effectively to meet goals.

 

Characterizing

This is the highest of the affective domain. It is about internalizing values. It means acting consistently in accordance with the set of values you have internalized and your characterization or philosophy about life. Essentially, you internalize values and let them control or guide your behavior.

Examples: You spend time with your family, you reframe from using profanity, and you make friends based on personally and not looks.

 

 

Related Links

Domains of Learning

Affective Domain

Cognitive Domain

Psychomotor Domain

 

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Cognitive Domain

Cognitive Domain

Most people think of “learning” as a cognitive process. This is why the domain people link most to “learning” is the cognitive domain. This is the mental skills domain. It is the domain where you process information, create knowledge, and think.

 

 

Other Domains of Learning

There are, however, other ways of learning. In addition to knowledge, you can learn attitudes, behaviors, and physical skills. These different types of learning create three distinct domains of learning. These three domains can be categorized as cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (skills) and affective (attitudes).

 

 

Benjamin Bloom

In the 1950’s, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists whose goal was to develop a system of categories of learning behavior to assist in the design and assessment of educational learning. The group identified three domains of learning.

  • Cognitive (thinking)
  • Affective (feeling)
  • Psychomotor (doing)

They focused on the cognitive domain which involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes simple skills like recall facts, as well as more complex skills such as recognition of patterns and forming of concepts.

 

 

The Cognitive Domain of Bloom’s Taxonomy

Bloom and his colleagues developed a classification system for the levels of cognitive skills. The classification system they created is often referred to as Bloom’s Taxonomy. The word taxonomy simply means classifications or structures. Bloom’s Taxonomy classifies thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity:

  1. Knowledge
  2. Comprehension
  3. Application
  4. Analysis
  5. Synthesis
  6. Evaluation

 

Cognitive Domain

Simple to Complex

The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. The taxonomy is arranged so categories proceed from the simplest to more complex levels.  For example, the cognitive domain starts with the simple task of “remembering” and work towards more complex levels of thinking such as “evaluation.” The categories are also ordered from concrete to abstract.

 

Higher levels of Thinking

The various levels have often been depicted as a stairway to reference a progressive climb to a higher level of thinking. According to Bloom, each level must be mastered before moving to the next higher level. Bloom believes a learner would have to first recall data and then understand it before he or she is able to apply it.

Each level becomes more challenging as you move higher. The higher the level ones require more complex mental operation.

Knowledge: the ability to recall or recognize data / information.

Comprehension: the ability to understand and to grasp the meaning of information.

Application: the ability to use learned information in a new situation.

Analysis: the ability to break down material into its parts so that its organizational structure may be understood.

Synthesis: the ability to put parts together to form a new whole.

Evaluation: the ability to judge the value or importance of material.

 

 

Revised Taxonomy

The original Taxonomy has been changed over the years. The most notable change is the terms used to describe the levels. The revised version changes the names of each of the six levels. The levels have also change from nouns to verbs.

The new version is as follows:

  1. Remembering
  2. Understanding
  3. Applying
  4. Analyzing
  5. Evaluating
  6. Creating

 

 

Related Links

Domains of Learning

Affective Domain

Cognitive Domain

Psychomotor Domain

 

 

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Verbs for Learning Objectives

 

 

Learning Objectives

Verbs for Learning Objectives / Learning Outcomes

 

 

 

The verbs used in learning objectives or learning outcomes should correspond to the level of thought at which the learners are expected to perform or function. The following lists of verbs are provided to help recognize the levels of thought and to help you write learning objectives that address the various levels of skill your learner should attain. By creating learning objectives using these verbs, you indicate explicitly what the learner must do in order to demonstrate learning.

 

 

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning

This list is arranged according to Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning. Bloom’s Taxonomy classifies thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The categories are ordered from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract. Each level becomes more challenging as you move higher.

 

 

Blooms Picture

 

 

Cognitive competency or complexity begins at the knowledge level learning and advances up the taxonomy to comprehension, application, and then to the higher order thinking skills involved in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised

 

 

 

 

 

 

Determining Verbs for Learning Objectives

When determining your learning objectives, consider using a verb from the appropriate cognitive domain below. This list will help you express specific performance expectations you have of the learners at the completion of the course.

 

 

 

 

Knowledge

This is the lowest level of learning. This cognitive level focuses on the ability to remember or retrieve previously learned material. The learning standards at this level simply ask the learner to recognize and recall data or information.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Knowledge domain are:  

Arrange

Define

Delineate

Describe

Distinguish

Identify

Indicate

Group

List   

Label

Locate

Match

Memorize    

Name

Outline       

Order
Quote

Recall

Recite

Repeat

Record

Recognize

Specify

Select

State

Underline

Write

 

 

 

 

Comprehension

This cognitive level focuses on the ability to grasp or construct meaning from material. The learning standards at this level ask the learner to demonstrate understanding of the meaning and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, summarizing, or paraphrasing.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Comprehension domain are:  

Calculate

Conclude

Convert

Choose

Characterize

Classify

Complete

Discuss       

Describe

Depict

Determine

Differentiate

Draw

Explain

Express      

Establish

Illustrate

Interpret

Identify

Infer

Locate

Outline

Paraphrase

Represent

Report        

Review        

Recognize

Restate

Summarize 

Select

Sort

Tell

Translate

 

 

 

 

Application

This level focuses on the ability to use information in new ways or situations. The learning standards at this level ask the learner to use the newly acquired information in a new situation or different way from the original context.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Application domain are:  

Apply

Calculate

Change

Collect

Compute

Conduct

Construct

Demonstrate

Develop

Dramatize

Draw

Employ

Exhibit

Experiment

Generalize

Illustrate

Implement

Interpret

Initiate

Make

Manipulate

Operate

Organize

Perform

Practice

Prescribe

Prepare

Produce

Relate

Restructure

Schedule

Shop

Solve 

Show 

Sketch

Teach

Translate

Use

Utilize

 

 

 

 

Analysis

This level consider to be a higher order of thinking. This level focuses on the ability to examine and break information or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. The learning standards at this level ask the learner to separate the whole into its parts, in order to better understand the organization of the whole and the relationships between the parts.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Analysis domain are:  

Analyze

Appraise

Arrange

Calculate

Categorize

Classify

Compare

Conclude

Contrast

Correlate

Critique

Deduce

Debate

Detect

Determine

Develop

Diagram

Diagnose

Differentiate

Discover

Dissect

Distinguish

Draw

Estimate

Evaluate

Examine

Experiment

Explore

Group

Identify

Infer

Inquire

Inspect

Inventory

Investigate

Order

Organize

Predict

Question

Probe

Relate

Research

Scrutinize

Separate

Sequence

Solve

Survey

Test

 

 

 

 

Synthesis

This level also considered to be a higher order of thinking. This level focuses on the ability to compile information in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions. The learning standards at this level ask the learner to put parts together to form a unique new whole or build a structure from diverse elements.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Synthesis domain are:  

Arrange

Appraise

Assess

Assemble

Collect

Combine

Compile

Compose

Construct

Create

Consolidate

Choose

Compare

Critique

Derive

Design

Develop

Devise

Estimate

Evaluate

Formulate

Forecast

Generalize

Generate

Hypothesize

Improve

Infer

Invent

Judge

Manage

Measure

Merge

Modify

Organize

Originate

Imagine

Plan

Predict

Prepare

Pretend

Produce

Propose

Rate

Reorganize

Revise

Show

Select

Set up

Synthesize

Validate

Value

Test

Theorize

Write

 

 

 

Evaluation

This is considered by Bloom to be the highest level of learning. This cognitive level focuses on the ability to make judgments about the value of ideas or materials and able to present and defend opinions based on a set of criteria. The learning standards at this highest level ask the learner to judge, check, critique the value of material to make decisions.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Evaluation domain are:  

Appraise

Argue

Arrange

Assemble

Assess

Choose

Collect

Compose

Construct

Create

Compare

Conclude

Critique

Criticize

Debate

Decide

Deduce

Defend

Determine

Discriminate

Design

Develop

Devise

Envision

Estimate

Evaluate

Examine

Formulate

Grade

Inspect

Infer

Judge

Justify

Manage

Measure

Modify

Organize

Plan

Predict

Prioritize

Probe

Prepare

Produce

Propose

Rank

Rate

Review

Reconstruct

Recommend

Referee

Reject

Revise

Score

Select

Support

Set-up

Synthesize

Systematize

Validate

Value

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised

 

 

 Blooms Revised

 

 

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy – New Version

 

 

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification system for levels of cognitive skills and learning behavior. The classification system they created is often referred to as Bloom’s Taxonomy. The word taxonomy means classifications or structures. Bloom’s Taxonomy classifies thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity:

 

  1. Knowledge
  2. Comprehension
  3. Application
  4. Analysis
  5. Synthesis
  6. Evaluation

 

The categories are ordered from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract. The classification is often referenced as a progressive climb to a higher level of thinking with the highest level being “evaluation.”

 

 Blooms Tamonomy

 

The basic or lowest level in the taxonomy deals with simple knowledge acquisition. At this level, people simply memorize, recall, list, and repeat information. The cognitive complexity grows at every level. At the highest levels, people are able to build a mental structure from diverse elements and are able to put parts together to form a whole, as well as make judgments about the value of ideas.

 

 

 

 

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised

 

During the 1990’s, Lorin Anderson and a group of cognitive psychologists updated the taxonomy. The revisions they made appear fairly minor, however, they do have significant impact on how people use the taxonomy. The changes can be divided into three categories: terminology, structure, and emphasis.

 

 

Blooms Taxonomy Comparison

 

Changes to Terminology

The first thing most people recognize is the different terminology. The revised version changes the names of each of the six levels. For example, the lowest level of the original, “knowledge” was renamed and classified as “remembering.” It is also important to note the change from nouns to verbs to describe the different levels of the taxonomy. The names of the major cognitive process categories were changed to indicate action because thinking implies active engagements. Knowledge is an outcome or product of thinking, it is not a form of thinking. Consequently, since the word “knowledge” inaccurately described a category of thinking, it was replaced with the verb “remembering.”

 

 

 

Changes to Structure

The top two levels are essentially swapped from the old to the new version. This revised taxonomy moves the “evaluation” stage down a level and the highest element becomes “creating.” At the second to the highest level of the revised version, people defend, support, justify and evaluate their opinion on this information. And at the highest level, people generate new ideas, create a new product, or construct a new point of view. This change was made because the taxonomy is viewed as a hierarchy reflecting increasing complexity of thinking, and creative thinking (creating level) is considered a more complex form of thinking than critical thinking (evaluating level). A person can evaluate information without being creative, but creative thinking requires some level of evaluation or critical thinking (i.e. you need to evaluate the effectiveness of your new idea).

 

 

Changes in Emphasis

The revision emphasizes the use of taxonomy as a tool for alignment of curriculum planning, instructional delivery, and assessment. Additionally, the revision is aimed at a broader audience. The original taxonomy was viewed as a tool best applied in the younger grades at school. The revised version is more universal and easily applicable at elementary, secondary, as well as adult training.

 

Blooms old v new

 

 

The new terms are defined as:

 

Levels Description
Remembering Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from long-term memory. This level is simply remembering or recalling previous learned information.
Understanding Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining.   This is essentially demonstrating understanding of information by explaining ideas or concepts.
Applying Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing. Basically, this is using the information in another familiar situation.
Analyzing Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing.
Evaluating Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. This includes justifying a decision or course of action.
Creating Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing. This includes generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Applying the Revised Version of Bloom’s Taxonomy

 

Just like the original taxonomy, the revised version provides a valuable framework for teachers, trainers, and instructional designers to use to focus on higher order thinking. By providing a hierarchy of thinking, both version can help in developing performance tasks, creating questions, or constructing problems.

 

 

Assessment of Learning Using the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy

 

The following chart illustrates the level of thinking and the expectation of the learner at each level of the hierarchy. It helps gage if the learner can demonstrate his or her ability at that level.

 

 

 

Levels Measurement
Remembering Can the learner recall or remember the information?
Understanding Can the learner explain ideas or concepts?
Applying Can the learner use the information in a new way?
Analyzing Can the learner differentiate between the various parts or components or the whole?
Evaluating Can the learner justify a position or decision?
Creating Can the learner create a new product, generate a new idea, or create a different thought process?

 

 

 

 

Moving to the Higher Order of Thinking

 

Below is an example of moving from the lower levels of the taxonomy to the higher levels as you teach a topic. Each level is built on the preceding lower level. As you move higher, each level becomes more challenging.

 

 

  1. Remembering: List different types of fruit

 

  1. Understanding: Explain why they are classified as fruits

 

  1. Applying: Diagram the parts of your favorite fruit

 

  1. Analyzing: Compare each fruit finding the characteristics that make it different from the others

 

  1. Evaluating: Determine and justify which fruits are the healthiest

 

  1. Creating: Create a drink using three fruits that would be considered extremely healthiest

 

 

 

 

Examples to Assess Mastery at Each Level

 

Below is a list of examples you can use to ascertain the level of mastery at each level.

 

 

Remembering

  • Write the definition of a vocabulary word.
  • List the parts of a bicycle.
  • Name the main characters in the book.
  • Name the counties in Africa.

 

 

Understanding

  • Summarize the main idea of the story.
  • Draw a picture showing the word’s meaning.
  • Classify the parts of speech in the sentence given.
  • Predict what will happen to the object when placed in water.

 

 

Applying

  • Describe how you would use this net to catch fish.
  • Write a sentence using three new vocabulary words.
  • Apply the principles of learning to the workshop.
  • Solve the problem using the concepts given.

 

 

Analyzing

  • Compare how the climate is similar between two counties.
  • Explain why the main character decided to make the decision she did.
  • Determine which parts of the bicycle is most important.
  • Research the best methods of removing stains from clothing.

 

 

Evaluating

  • Explain the best alternative among the three choices.
  • Determine which character in the stories was the most impacted by the events.
  • Decide which parts of speech are most valuable to creating a sentence.
  • Assess the value of the items on the table.

 

 

Creating

  • Invest a device that can pick up small objects.
  • Create a game that will help students learn vocabulary words.
  • Write a story that leaves the reader in suspense.
  • Generate three ideas on how to improve the learning process.

 

 

 

 

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised – Action Verbs

 

The following chart provides action verbs for each level of the revised taxonomy. By creating learning objectives using these action verbs, you indicate explicitly what the learner must do in order to demonstrate learning.

 

 

Levels Action Verbs
Remembering arrange, define, find, identify, label, list, match, name, memorize, recall, recite, repeat, state, tell, write
Understanding classify, covert, conclude, demonstrate, describe, discuss, explain, identify, illustrate, locate, paraphrase, predict, recognize, report, select, summarize, translate
Applying apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, modify, operate, produce, select, schedule, sketch, show, solve, use
Analyzing analyze, appraise, categorize, classify, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, outline, research, separate, subdivide, test,
Evaluating appraise, argue, assess, choose, conclude, defend, estimate, evaluate, judge, select, support, value
Creating assemble, construct, create, design, develop, devise, formulate, generate, integrate, invent

 

 

 

Links

 

Blooms Taxonomy

Thinking Skills

 

 

 

 

 

References:

 

Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook 1; Cognitive Domain.

 

Overbaugh, R. & Schultz, L. “Bloom’s Taxonomy.”

 

Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). “A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview.” Theory into Practice

 

Clark, D. (2010). Bloom’s taxonomy of learning domains: The three types of learning. Big Dog & Little Dog’s Performance Juxtaposition.

 

Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy

 

Blooms Tamonomy

 

 

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy is a classification system developed by educational psychologist Benjamin Bloom to categorize cognitive skills and learning behavior. The word taxonomy simply means classifications or structures. Bloom’s Taxonomy classifies thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The categories are ordered from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract. According to Bloom, each level must be mastered before moving to the next higher level. Each level becomes more challenging as you move higher. 

 

The classification begins at the basic level that is simple recall skills and progresses to the perceived highest level of cognitive processing which they believe to be “evaluation.” The various levels have often been depicted as a stairway to reference a progressive climb to a higher level of thinking. A learner would have to first recall data and then understand it before he or she is able to apply it.

 

 

Blooms stairway

 

 

The basic or lowest level in the taxonomy focuses on knowledge acquisition and at this level, people simply memorize, recall, list, and repeat information. In the second level, people are able to classify, describe, discuss, and explain information. At the next tier, people demonstrate, interpret, and apply what they have learned and are able to use the information to solve problems. At the following level, they examine, compare, contrast, and distinguish what they have learned with other information. Then at the second to the highest level, people build a structure or pattern from diverse elements, and are able to put parts together to form a whole. Finally, at the highest level, people make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.

 

 

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy Chart

 

Classification Description of the Classification Level
Knowledge  

Recall data or information

 

Comprehension  

Demonstrate understanding of the meaning and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, summarizing, and giving descriptions, and can state a problem in one’s own words.

 

Application  

Use acquired knowledge by applying a concept in a new situation or different way.

 

Analysis  

Examine and break information or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Make inferences and able to distinguishes between facts and inferences.

 

Synthesis  

Compile information in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions. Build a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Able to put parts together to form a whole.

 

Evaluation  

Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials and able to present and defend opinions based on a set of criteria.

 

 

 

 

 

Blooms Chart

 

 

 

 

Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy provides a valuable framework for teachers, trainers, and instructional designers to use to focus on higher order thinking. By providing a hierarchy of thinking, Bloom’s Taxonomy can help in developing performance tasks, creating questions, or constructing problems.

 

The following chart illustrates the expectation of the learner at each level of the hierarchy and gives some examples of how the learner can demonstrate his or her ability at each level.

 

 

Classification Level Learner’s Expectation
Knowledge Learner exhibits memory of previously learned material by recalling facts, terms, or basic concepts.  Example: List steps in a procedure, names the parts of a bicycle, or recall characters from a novel.
Comprehension Learner demonstrates understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, paraphrasing, translating, or summarizing main ideas.Example:   Explain how the main character felt about what happened to them or summarize what happened in a story.
Application Learner is able to solve problems in new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way.Example:   Explain how water bottles could be used to determine the weight of a basket of apples.
Analysis Learner is able to examine and break information into components by identifying motives or causes as well as make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations.Example: Categorize material in groups of recycle and unrecyclable.
Synthesis Learner is able to compile information in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions.Example: Create a new character and explain how that character would fit into the storyline.
Evaluation Learner is able to present and defend opinions by making judgments about information or validity of ideas based on a set of criteria.Example:   Determine if a person acted in a reasonable manner and defend that opinion, or determine if the route taken by an explorer was the best route to take at the time.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bloom’s Action Verbs

 

The following chart provides action verbs for each level of Bloom’s Taxonomy. By creating learning objectives using these action verbs, you indicate explicitly what the learner must do in order to demonstrate learning.

 

 

Levels Action Verbs
Knowledge Arrange, Define, Describe, Draw, Find, Identify, Label, List, Match, Memorize, Name, Order, Outline, Quote, Recognize, Recall, Recite, State, Tell, Write
Comprehension Classify, Convert, Conclude, Demonstrate, Describe, Discuss, Distinguish, Explain, Generalize, Identify, Illustrate, Interpret, Indicate, Infer, Paraphrase, Predict, Report, Rewrite, Restate, Review, Summarize, Translate
Application Apply, Change, Choose, Compute, Demonstrate, Discover, Dramatize, Employ, Illustrate, Interpret, Interview, Manipulate, Modify, Predict, Prepare, Produce, Select, Show, Solve, Transfer, Use
Analysis Analyze, Appraise, Breakdown, Categorize, Characterize, Classify, Compare, Contrast, Debate, Deduce, Diagram, Differentiate, Discriminate, Distinguish, Examine, Illustrate, Infer, Outline, Relate, Research, Separate, Subdivide
Synthesis Arrange, Assemble, Categorize, Combine, Comply, Compose, Construct, Create, Design, Develop, Devise, Formulate, Generate, Integrate, Invent, Perform, Plan, Propose, Reconstruct, Relate, Reorganize, Revise, Rewrite, Synthesize
Evaluation Appraise, Argue, Assess, Choose, Conclude, Critic, Decide, Defend, Estimate, Evaluate, Interpret, Judge, Justify, Predict, Prioritize, Rank, Rate, Value

 

 

 

Links

Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised

Thinking Skills

 

 

 

References

 

Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook 1; Cognitive Domain.

 

Overbaugh, R. & Schultz, L. “Bloom’s Taxonomy.”

 

Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). “A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview.” Theory into Practice

 

Clark, D. (2010). Bloom’s taxonomy of learning domains: The three types of learning. Big Dog & Little Dog’s Performance Juxtaposition.

 

 

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