Verbs for Learning Objectives

 

 

Learning Objectives

Verbs for Learning Objectives / Learning Outcomes

 

 

 

The verbs used in learning objectives or learning outcomes should correspond to the level of thought at which the learners are expected to perform or function. The following lists of verbs are provided to help recognize the levels of thought and to help you write learning objectives that address the various levels of skill your learner should attain. By creating learning objectives using these verbs, you indicate explicitly what the learner must do in order to demonstrate learning.

 

 

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning

This list is arranged according to Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning. Bloom’s Taxonomy classifies thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The categories are ordered from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract. Each level becomes more challenging as you move higher.

 

 

Blooms Picture

 

 

Cognitive competency or complexity begins at the knowledge level learning and advances up the taxonomy to comprehension, application, and then to the higher order thinking skills involved in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised

 

 

 

 

 

 

Determining Verbs for Learning Objectives

When determining your learning objectives, consider using a verb from the appropriate cognitive domain below. This list will help you express specific performance expectations you have of the learners at the completion of the course.

 

 

 

 

Knowledge

This is the lowest level of learning. This cognitive level focuses on the ability to remember or retrieve previously learned material. The learning standards at this level simply ask the learner to recognize and recall data or information.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Knowledge domain are:  

Arrange

Define

Delineate

Describe

Distinguish

Identify

Indicate

Group

List   

Label

Locate

Match

Memorize    

Name

Outline       

Order
Quote

Recall

Recite

Repeat

Record

Recognize

Specify

Select

State

Underline

Write

 

 

 

 

Comprehension

This cognitive level focuses on the ability to grasp or construct meaning from material. The learning standards at this level ask the learner to demonstrate understanding of the meaning and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, summarizing, or paraphrasing.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Comprehension domain are:  

Calculate

Conclude

Convert

Choose

Characterize

Classify

Complete

Discuss       

Describe

Depict

Determine

Differentiate

Draw

Explain

Express      

Establish

Illustrate

Interpret

Identify

Infer

Locate

Outline

Paraphrase

Represent

Report        

Review        

Recognize

Restate

Summarize 

Select

Sort

Tell

Translate

 

 

 

 

Application

This level focuses on the ability to use information in new ways or situations. The learning standards at this level ask the learner to use the newly acquired information in a new situation or different way from the original context.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Application domain are:  

Apply

Calculate

Change

Collect

Compute

Conduct

Construct

Demonstrate

Develop

Dramatize

Draw

Employ

Exhibit

Experiment

Generalize

Illustrate

Implement

Interpret

Initiate

Make

Manipulate

Operate

Organize

Perform

Practice

Prescribe

Prepare

Produce

Relate

Restructure

Schedule

Shop

Solve 

Show 

Sketch

Teach

Translate

Use

Utilize

 

 

 

 

Analysis

This level consider to be a higher order of thinking. This level focuses on the ability to examine and break information or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. The learning standards at this level ask the learner to separate the whole into its parts, in order to better understand the organization of the whole and the relationships between the parts.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Analysis domain are:  

Analyze

Appraise

Arrange

Calculate

Categorize

Classify

Compare

Conclude

Contrast

Correlate

Critique

Deduce

Debate

Detect

Determine

Develop

Diagram

Diagnose

Differentiate

Discover

Dissect

Distinguish

Draw

Estimate

Evaluate

Examine

Experiment

Explore

Group

Identify

Infer

Inquire

Inspect

Inventory

Investigate

Order

Organize

Predict

Question

Probe

Relate

Research

Scrutinize

Separate

Sequence

Solve

Survey

Test

 

 

 

 

Synthesis

This level also considered to be a higher order of thinking. This level focuses on the ability to compile information in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions. The learning standards at this level ask the learner to put parts together to form a unique new whole or build a structure from diverse elements.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Synthesis domain are:  

Arrange

Appraise

Assess

Assemble

Collect

Combine

Compile

Compose

Construct

Create

Consolidate

Choose

Compare

Critique

Derive

Design

Develop

Devise

Estimate

Evaluate

Formulate

Forecast

Generalize

Generate

Hypothesize

Improve

Infer

Invent

Judge

Manage

Measure

Merge

Modify

Organize

Originate

Imagine

Plan

Predict

Prepare

Pretend

Produce

Propose

Rate

Reorganize

Revise

Show

Select

Set up

Synthesize

Validate

Value

Test

Theorize

Write

 

 

 

Evaluation

This is considered by Bloom to be the highest level of learning. This cognitive level focuses on the ability to make judgments about the value of ideas or materials and able to present and defend opinions based on a set of criteria. The learning standards at this highest level ask the learner to judge, check, critique the value of material to make decisions.

Examples of verbs that relate to the Evaluation domain are:  

Appraise

Argue

Arrange

Assemble

Assess

Choose

Collect

Compose

Construct

Create

Compare

Conclude

Critique

Criticize

Debate

Decide

Deduce

Defend

Determine

Discriminate

Design

Develop

Devise

Envision

Estimate

Evaluate

Examine

Formulate

Grade

Inspect

Infer

Judge

Justify

Manage

Measure

Modify

Organize

Plan

Predict

Prioritize

Probe

Prepare

Produce

Propose

Rank

Rate

Review

Reconstruct

Recommend

Referee

Reject

Revise

Score

Select

Support

Set-up

Synthesize

Systematize

Validate

Value

 

 

 

 

 

 

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